PBX backup script



TAR="/bin/tar -czf"
DATE=$(date +%Y-%m-%d)
CDRDAY=$(date +%d)

# function for backup routine
bkuper ()
	# 1. cd to dir
	mkdir BACKUP

	# 2. copy mission-critical shit
	for i in /etc/asterisk/ /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf /etc/odbc.ini /etc/odbcinst.ini /var/scripts/ ;
		/bin/cp -r $i BACKUP/

	# 3. CDR SQL dump on 28 day monthly
	if [ $CDRDAY == 28 ]
		$SQLDUMP -u root -pRoOtPaSsWoRd db_asterisk_cdr > BACKUP/db_asterisk_cdr.$DATE.sql

	# 4. archivate

	# 5. delete shit
	/bin/rm -rf BACKUP/

# fire!
if [ -d $BACKUP_DIR ]
	/bin/mkdir $BACKUP_DIR

# remove older than 30 days old backups
find $BACKUP_DIR -type f -name "*z" -mtime +30 -execdir rm -f {} \;

exit $?

Debian 9, MariaDB, ODBC

Debian switched from MySQL to MariaDB since release 9.
And as for now (2017-august-11) it seems that there is no ODBC package for MariaDB connection.

You need to download connector manually from MariaDB website. I tried 3.0.1 (beta) and it didn’t work for me, so I used latest stable (as for now, 2.0.15).

Just download gzipped tar file (not source), unpack it and place libmaodbc.so to /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/

After that your odbcinst.ini should look like this:

# not sure if we need 'Setup' at all. As I understood, it's for GUI tool and as you see, 
# I steel have a wrong lib here :) but now everything works

If you’re in a hurry, you may configure your server right now. But there’s a second part of the story.

As it was my first practice with Debian 9, MariaDB and ODBC connection for it, I haven’t know exactly what packages do I need. It seemed to be clear that some package names will be different in contrast to Debian 8/MySQL+ODBC.

That’s why I installed odbc-mdbtools, thinking that “MDB” means “MariaDB” :-)
Nothing worked, and “isql -v %connector name% %DB user% %DB pass%” command showed that “File not found”. I was confused!

It was my fault that I haven’t read the package description, relying on package name only.

And then, after some hours of research (including my monologue at Linuxquestions) I configured MariaDB + ODBC.

Debian 9: webserver notes

Debian 9.1 Stretch (stable).

If your Apache2 does not execute PHP code (even when PHP is already installed) check if a package ‘libapache2-mod-php7.0‘ is installed. Seems to be easy and obvious, but I faced this problem with Debian 9.

Linux: manual bandwidth limiting

Emulate your network interface bandwidth in both directions:

tc qdisc add dev venet0 handle 1: root htb default 11
tc class add dev venet0 parent 1: classid 1:1 htb rate 1kbps
tc class add dev venet0 parent 1:1 classid 1:11 htb rate 1kbps

Show rules:

tc -d qdisc
tc -s qdisc

Delete certain rule and all rules respectively:

tc class del dev venet0 parent 1:1 classid 1:11 htb rate 1kbps
tc qdisc del dev venet0 root

Linux: run a command with a time limit

Need to run tcpdump at night writing to a pcap file? Not a problem with a crond.
Need to stop it after 10 minutes? One more crond task initiating something like ‘ps aux | grep [t]cpd’, parsing it PID and killing it? No!

timeout 10m tcpdump -v -pnni eth0 udp src port 5060 and dst port 5060 and host -w pbx_`date +%F_%H-%M`.pcap

timeout – a nice GNU coreutil.

SIP debugging: catch only certain types of messages

Let’s say you need to catch INVITEs only. In this case do:
ngrep -q -W byline -d eth0 INVITE\ sip

‘-W byline’ means to print each SIP packet in readable text mode, line by line
‘-q’ means to be quiet, not to print packet reception hash marks. Without this option your screen will fill up with ###### signs between captured types of packets.
‘-d eth0’ it’s clear
‘INVITE\ sip’ means show INVITEs only. Be careful: if you type ‘INVITE’ word only, you’ll catch nearly every SIP packet, as not only INVITE requests contain the word ‘INVITE’. For example a reply for OPTION request also contains this word among allowed mwthods described in the ‘Allow:’ header field.

And each INVITE request has a request-line like
INVITE sip:123@dmn.co...
I mean starting with ‘INVITE’ word, following space and following ‘sip’ word.

Asterisk 13: list of modules to be used

This list is not as short as it could be. But it still took much time to form it.



preload => res_http_websocket.so

load => app_cdr.so
load => app_dial.so
load => app_mixmonitor.so
load => app_playback.so
load => app_stack.so
load => app_verbose.so
load => bridge_simple.so
load => cdr_adaptive_odbc.so
load => cdr_odbc.so
load => chan_bridge_media.so
load => chan_rtp.so
load => chan_sip.so
load => codec_a_mu.so
load => codec_g722.so
load => codec_resample.so
load => codec_ulaw.so
load => format_sln.so
load => format_wav.so
load => func_callerid.so
load => func_cdr.so
load => func_channel.so
load => func_global.so
load => func_periodic_hook.so
load => func_strings.so
load => pbx_ael.so
load => res_ael_share.so
load => res_agi.so
load => res_clialiases.so
load => res_format_attr_celt.so
load => res_format_attr_opus.so
load => res_format_attr_silk.so
load => res_format_attr_siren14.so
load => res_format_attr_siren7.so
load => res_format_attr_vp8.so
load => res_http_post.so
load => res_limit.so
load => res_odbc_transaction.so
load => res_odbc.so
load => res_rtp_asterisk.so
load => res_rtp_multicast.so
load => res_security_log.so

CentOS 7.2.1511 and Asterisk 13.1: max open files problem

Asterisk 13.1 (running under CentOS 7.2.1511, maybe some other Asterisk versions too) has a problem: setting ‘maxfiles’ in asterisk.conf does not matter.
So, one day, your Asterisk may stop processing new calls under high load, and as the max opened files limit is reached, you will even have no opportunity to enter the Asterisk CLI.

The /var/log/asterisk/messages (or Asterisk CLI, if you’ve been already logged in before reaching the max open files limit) will be filling with messages like these:

[Feb 13 16:47:00] WARNING[9283] acl.c: Cannot create socket
[Feb 13 16:47:00] WARNING[9283] rtp.c: Unable to allocate RTCP socket: Too many open files
[Feb 13 16:47:00] WARNING[14732] acl.c: Cannot create socket
[Feb 13 16:47:00] WARNING[14732] channel.c: Channel allocation failed: Can't create alert pipe! 
Try increasing max file descriptors with ulimit -n

As a workaround, you may change the soft and hard limit for the Asterisk process on the OS level. But first of all let’s check how many files are allowed for Asterisk to be opened:

voip-b2b01 ~ # cat /proc/`pidof asterisk`/limits
Limit                     Soft Limit           Hard Limit           Units     
Max cpu time              unlimited            unlimited            seconds   
Max file size             unlimited            unlimited            bytes     
Max data size             unlimited            unlimited            bytes     
Max stack size            8388608              unlimited            bytes     
Max core file size        0                    unlimited            bytes     
Max resident set          unlimited            unlimited            bytes     
Max processes             15693                15693                processes 
Max open files            1024                 1024                 files     
Max locked memory         65536                65536                bytes     
Max address space         unlimited            unlimited            bytes     
Max file locks            unlimited            unlimited            locks     
Max pending signals       15693                15693                signals   
Max msgqueue size         819200               819200               bytes     
Max nice priority         0                    0                    
Max realtime priority     0                    0                    
Max realtime timeout      unlimited            unlimited            us        

So, you see the line with ‘1024’ value, in spite of our setting in asterisk.conf:

Max open files            1024                 1024                 files     

Let’s fire! CentOS has a nice tool called prlimit. Use it:

prlimit --pid `pidof asterisk` --nofile=8192

Now let’s check again:

voip-b2b01 ~ # cat /proc/`pidof asterisk`/limits
Limit                     Soft Limit           Hard Limit           Units     
Max open files            8192                 8192                 files     

CentOS 7.2 uses Systemd, so it’s wise to edit Asterisk-related configuration file.
We check the /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ directory and see an ‘asterisk.service’ file there, which is a symlink in fact, leading to /usr/lib/systemd/system/asterisk.service:

voip-b2b01 ~ # ls -l /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 40 июл 14 13:09 asterisk.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/asterisk.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 38 сен 15  2015 auditd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 июн 28 14:44 bacula-fd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/bacula-fd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 сен 15  2015 chronyd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/chronyd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 сен 15  2015 crond.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/crond.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 42 сен 15  2015 irqbalance.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/irqbalance.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 41 июн 28 12:33 nfs-client.target -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/nfs-client.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 июн 28 12:49 oddjobd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/oddjobd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 40 сен 15  2015 remote-fs.target -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/remote-fs.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 39 сен 15  2015 rsyslog.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/rsyslog.service
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 40 июл 14 13:02 sendmail.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sendmail.service
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 41 июл 14 13:02 sm-client.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sm-client.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 сен 15  2015 sshd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 июн 28 12:49 sssd.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/sssd.service
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 44 июн 28 14:19 zabbix-agent.service -> /usr/lib/systemd/system/zabbix-agent.service

Just uncomment/edit the parameter LimitNOFILE. And I advise you to uncomment/edit the Restart=always line to let Systemd control the Asterik is running (now you need not use Monit). You will have such a configuration:

voip-b2b01 ~ # grep -vE '^$|^;|^#' /usr/lib/systemd/system/asterisk.service 
Description=Asterisk PBX and telephony daemon.

ExecStart=/usr/sbin/asterisk -f -C /etc/asterisk/asterisk.conf
ExecStop=/usr/sbin/asterisk -rx 'core stop now'
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/asterisk -rx 'core reload'



Don’t forget to re-read settings by systemd:

systemctl daemon-reload

… and now it’s time to restart Asterisk:

systemctl restart asterisk.service

Well, at this point we’ve changed the max open files limit for the Asterisk process manually and changed the Systemd Asterisk config, hoping that it will start now with the 8192 max open files limit.

If you’re interested in how many files are currently opened by your Asterisk, you may try:

voip-b2b01 ~ # lsof -p `pidof asterisk` | wc -l

Bash: Target Directory

A nice article about target directory, moving and copying files/directories.

Asterisk 13: chan_sip sip_write Can’t send 10 type frames with SIP write

Centos 7
Asterisk 13.1

Noticed a WARNING which filled Asterisk’s messages logfile:

To get rid of it, use bridge_softmix.so module instead of bride_simple.so.
Thanks to Lenar Daminov from our team for research.

UPD: https://community.asterisk.org/t/bridge-simple-and-bridge-softmix-difference/69193

jcolp, Asterisk developer:

The bridge_softmix module is more heavy weight as it gets data from each channel, transcodes it into signed linear, mixes it at an interval, and then sends it out. Even for 2 channel bridges it will do this. The bridge_simple module simply exchanges data back and forth without mixing. Frame type 10 is comfort noise which is not currently supported by Asterisk.